admittedly more comely than a certain dwarf with half a
The work of Johannes Hevelius--Halley and Hevelius--Halley's observation of the transit of Mercury, and his method of determining the parallax of the planets--Halley's observation of meteors--His inability to explain these bodies--The important work of James Bradley--Lacaille's measurement of the arc of the meridian--The determination of the question as to the exact shape of the earth--D'Alembert and his influence upon science- -Delambre's History of Astronomy--The astronomical work of Euler.
CHAPTER II. THE PROGRESS OF MODERN ASTRONOMY
The work of William Herschel--His discovery of Uranus--His discovery that the stars are suns--His conception of the universe--His deduction that gravitation has caused the grouping of the heavenly bodies--The nebula, hypothesis, --Immanuel Kant's conception of the formation of the world--Defects in Kant's conception--Laplace's final solution of the problem--His explanation in detail--Change in the mental attitude of the world since Bruno--Asteroids and satellites--Discoveries of Olbers1--The mathematical calculations of Adams and Leverrier--The discovery of the inner ring of Saturn--Clerk Maxwell's paper on the stability of Saturn's rings--Helmholtz's conception of the action of tidal friction--Professor G. H. Darwin's estimate of the consequences of tidal action--Comets and meteors--Bredichin's cometary theory--The final solution of the structure of comets--Newcomb's estimate of the amount of cometary dust swept up daily by the earth--The fixed stars--John Herschel's studies of double stars--Fraunhofer's perfection of the refracting telescope--Bessel's measurement of the parallax of a star,--Henderson's measurements--Kirchhoff and Bunsen's perfection of the spectroscope--Wonderful revelations of the spectroscope--Lord Kelvin's estimate of the time that will be required for the earth to become completely cooled-- Alvan Clark's discovery of the companion star of Sirius-- The advent of the photographic film in astronomy--Dr. Huggins's studies of nebulae--Sir Norman Lockyer's "cosmogonic guess,"--Croll's pre-nebular theory.
CHAPTER III. THE NEW SCIENCE OF PALEONTOLOGY
William Smith and fossil shells--His discovery that fossil rocks are arranged in regular systems--Smith's inquiries taken up by Cuvier--His Ossements Fossiles containing the first description of hairy elephant--His contention that fossils represent extinct species only--Dr. Buckland's studies of English fossil-beds--Charles Lyell combats catastrophism, --Elaboration of his ideas with reference to the rotation of species--The establishment of the doctrine of uniformitarianism, --Darwin's Origin of Species--Fossil man--Dr. Falconer's visit to the fossil-beds in the valley of the Somme--Investigations of Prestwich and Sir John Evans--Discovery of the Neanderthal skull, --Cuvier's rejection of human fossils--The finding of prehistoric carving on ivory--The fossil-beds of America--Professor Marsh's paper on the fossil horses in America--The Warren mastodon, --The Java fossil, Pithecanthropus Erectus.
CHAPTER IV. THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN GEOLOGY
James Hutton and the study of the rocks--His theory of the earth--His belief in volcanic cataclysms in raising and forming the continents--His famous paper before the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1781---His conclusions that all strata of the earth have their origin at the bottom of the sea---His deduction that heated and expanded matter caused the elevation of land above the sea-level--Indifference at first shown this remarkable paper--Neptunists versus Plutonists-- Scrope's classical work on volcanoes--Final acceptance of Hutton's explanation of the origin of granites--Lyell and uniformitarianism--Observations on the gradual elevation of the coast-lines of Sweden and Patagonia--Observations on the enormous amount of land erosion constantly taking place, --Agassiz and the glacial theory--Perraudin the chamois- hunter, and his explanation of perched bowlders--De Charpentier's acceptance of Perraudin's explanation--Agassiz's paper on his Alpine studies--His conclusion that the Alps were once covered with an ice-sheet--Final acceptance of the glacial theory--The geological ages--The work of Murchison and Sedgwick--Formation of the American continents--Past, present, and future.
CHAPTER V. THE NEW SCIENCE OF METEOROLOGY
- wooden steps. He drew himself closely to these, and directed
- not easy. I took a deep breath and shouted, Ladies andgentlemen,
- I supposed to do here? Fire off a rocket flare in his face?
- impaled, and I could confidently bring it aboard. But if
- possessed for him. So it came that his was a familiar figure
- what every cat cage in a zoo smells of. Tigers are highlyterritorial,
- of an inch across and brown in colour. Itried everything
- his tongue. When he looked up, I stared him aggressively
- her arms, and laughed shrilly, insanely. Then she turned
- of sea life. If you are hot, wet your clothes instead.
- another mistake. I unwrapped the fish carefully, keepinga
- colour. It glowed in thesunlight, looking like a glass
- The wide heavens about her seemed to promise a greater
- live and whole, struggling wings beating in his mouth.
- way. I took the hatchet in bothmy hands and vigorously
- between one throe of agony andthe next - that my suffering
- all the inhabitants came down to the beach to see us pitch
- if not how he would get out of it. The result wasadvice
- Fishing was surely a better way of passing the timethan
- Richard Parker did it again, this time with a rolling of
- to peer through the fog ahead, he turned and descended
- happen. The unforgiving laws of nature. The relentlessmarch
- that you must explore a forest. It is thesame with the
- zoo theadult lions and tigers ate on average ten pounds
- a short time we were surrounded by a large group of the
- This salt-free water trickles downand collects in a gully
- ? prayers? light lunch? rest and restful activities (writing
- withwas the very same who brought me peace, purpose, I
- which marks the natural boundary of the country that the
- from the rainfall and he didn't seem too concerned withhunger.
- It was Richard Parker who calmed me down. It is the ironyof
- I thoughtmy arms would come apart and my head would explode.
- The other he ordered straight westward with orders to halt
- be shock. Blessed bethat part of us that protects us from
- I had to start fishing very soon. It would not take long
- out. (Only small cats purr breathing both ways. It isone
- Behind a great flowering shrub Hanson lay gazing at the
- save my life and which Richard Parker would come toregret.
- and how! What a delicious milk. Mind you, a littlerubbery,
- his thirstallow you to walk to America? Quite amazing,
- In three strides he found his foot splashing in water.
- water plopped loudly and wastefully into the sea, dimplingits
- blue. There was nothing to block my view. The vastness
- that do? Even if I did manage to shove 450 pounds ofliving,
- the steps again, finding himself now nearly up to his armpits
- to me as cattleare to a farmer. Indeed, as they floated
- biscuits andone can of water, I read what the survival
- ofemergency ration and ate my fill, about one-third of
- The people here live chiefly on shell-fish and potatoes.
- storing of all foods and equipment? arrangements for night