he concluded, nor Tyrosh. Those bare branches and the chill
The fame of these studies went abroad, and presently fossil bones poured in from all sides, and Cuvier's conviction that extinct forms of animals are represented among the fossils was sustained by the evidence of many strange and anomalous forms, some of them of gigantic size. In 1816 the famous Ossements Fossiles, describing these novel objects, was published, and vertebrate paleontology became a science. Among other things of great popular interest the book contained the first authoritative description of the hairy elephant, named by Cuvier the mammoth, the remains of which bad been found embedded in a mass of ice in Siberia in 1802, so wonderfully preserved that the dogs of the Tungusian fishermen actually ate its flesh. Bones of the same species had been found in Siberia several years before by the naturalist Pallas, who had also found the carcass of a rhinoceros there, frozen in a mud-bank; but no one then suspected that these were members of an extinct population--they were supposed to be merely transported relics of the flood.
Cuvier, on the other hand, asserted that these and the other creatures he described had lived and died in the region where their remains were found, and that most of them have no living representatives upon the globe. This, to be sure, was nothing more than William Smith had tried all along to establish regarding lower forms of life; but flesh and blood monsters appeal to the imagination in a way quite beyond the power of mere shells; so the announcement of Cuvier's discoveries aroused the interest of the entire world, and the Ossements Fossiles was accorded a popular reception seldom given a work of technical science--a reception in which the enthusiastic approval of progressive geologists was mingled with the bitter protests of the conservatives.
"Naturalists certainly have neither explored all the continents," said Cuvier, "nor do they as yet even know all the quadrupeds of those parts which have been explored. New species of this class are discovered from time to time; and those who have not examined with attention all the circumstances belonging to these discoveries may allege also that the unknown quadrupeds, whose fossil bones have been found in the strata of the earth, have hitherto remained concealed in some islands not yet discovered by navigators, or in some of the vast deserts which occupy the middle of Africa, Asia, the two Americas, and New Holland.
"But if we carefully attend to the kind of quadrupeds that have been recently discovered, and to the circumstances of their discovery, we shall easily perceive that there is very little chance indeed of our ever finding alive those which have only been seen in a fossil state.
"Islands of moderate size, and at a considerable distance from the large continents, have very few quadrupeds. These must have been carried to them from other countries. Cook and Bougainville found no other quadrupeds besides hogs and dogs in the South Sea Islands; and the largest quadruped of the West India Islands, when first discovered, was the agouti, a species of the cavy, an animal apparently between the rat and the rabbit.
"It is true that the great continents, as Asia, Africa, the two Americas, and New Holland, have large quadrupeds, and, generally speaking, contain species common to each; insomuch, that upon discovering countries which are isolated from the rest of the world, the animals they contain of the class of quadruped were found entirely different from those which existed in other countries. Thus, when the Spaniards first penetrated into South America, they did not find it to contain a single quadruped exactly the same with those of Europe, Asia, and Africa. The puma, the jaguar, the tapir, the capybara, the llama, or glama, and vicuna, and the whole tribe of sapajous, were to them entirely new animals, of which they had not the smallest idea....
"If there still remained any great continent to be discovered, we might perhaps expect to be made acquainted with new species of large quadrupeds, among which some might be found more or less similar to those of which we find the exuviae in the bowels of the earth. But it is merely sufficient to glance the eye over the maps of the world and observe the innumerable directions in which navigators have traversed the ocean, in order to be satisfied that there does not remain any large land to be discovered, unless it may be situated towards the Antarctic Pole, where eternal ice necessarily forbids the existence of animal life."
Cuvier then points out that the ancients were well acquainted with practically all the animals on the continents of Europe, Asia, and Africa now known to scientists. He finds little grounds, therefore, for belief in the theory that at one time there were monstrous animals on the earth which it was necessary to destroy in order that the present fauna and men might flourish. After reviewing these theories and beliefs in detail, he takes up his Inquiry Respecting the Fabulous Animals of the Ancients. "It is easy," he says, "to reply to the foregoing objections, by examining the descriptions that are left us by the ancients of those unknown animals, and by inquiring into their origins. Now that the greater number of these animals have an origin, the descriptions given of them bear the most unequivocal marks; as in almost all of them we see merely the different parts of known animals united by an unbridled imagination, and in contradiction to every established law of nature."
- numbers. I never saw anything more obliging and humble
- to deny that there is either an external or an internal,
- educated scholar like himself to be unable to find it.
- sets in at once in every part of it, and what mould and
- skin, how he had passed the night. He seemed perfectly
- moment we set eyes on one another, but we each told Ernest
- prison, and was therefore dressed as a clergyman. No one
- over the bad places, and questioned him tin I had got out
- fowls, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and cattle; the order
- to deny that there is either an external or an internal,
- had scrambled over, and was out upon the other side. Already
- he was, and your ma too; it would do anyone good to live
- all the inhabitants came down to the beach to see us pitch
- inflicted upon them, and that above all things else I will
- respect. It ended in my finding the money to do everything
- into the dining-room and teach me my catechism, that she
- he often spent much time with the white foreman of the
- or else to the conclusion already more than once insisted
- his present appearance and his appearance six months previously;
- and feared that unless he had some kind of den into which
- could trust. To them he explained his plans and the rich
- had great business capabilities. Almost anything would
- look after the women’s clothes while he did the men’s.
- as I have said, have had L100 from his father if he had
- An instant he hesitated. Through the corridor ahead of
- his story to someone else. He felt inclined to slur things
- with them, and you could not expect his fellow-workmen
- whatever. It was only by being kept warm and quiet that
- church bell by guess. The arrival of our boats was a rare
- turns, with an emotion which I can neither forget nor describe.
- his curiosity. He had hardly seen her face, but being determined
- to a better shop, where she made L5 or L6 a week at least
- gate, but the apparatus was out of his reach, and he had
- he turned his face to the prison wall, leant against it
- Ellen had been in prison several times, and though she
- some men who do great things in the end are not very wise
- bivouacked near us. They had no shelter during the rain.
- if put out of its depth before its parents have taught
- in lieu of charge for taking care of the furniture. As
- can be sold by penn’orths and twopenn’orths if you
- They were approaching the river, and there was a fog to-night!
- me to see the place where his own men worked. “This is
- to cut himself adrift from music, letters, and polite life,
- such an easy matter after all. If a man has been possessed
- that belief he had made no effort to find her after his
- After breakfast, we discussed the situation. I had taken
- older than she was, now she looked much younger; indeed
- poor people do? Did not a good wife rather help matters
- slowly toward the north—he said nothing of the party
- too dear, and you know fish is dearer than ever; and then